How are you making sure that the ELL students in your classroom are learning? Have you included SIOP strategies into your daily lesson plans? Below you will find the steps for a SIOP lesson plan and some SIOP strategies to implement into the classroom.
What is SIOP? SIOP is a researched based lesson delivery model that links Content Objectives to Language Objectives. There are 8 components to SIOP along with 30 SIOP features. The 8 components of the SIOP lesson protocol are similar to a lesson plan format you may have learned in college education courses but keep in mind the varying levels of English Language Proficiency levels of the ELL students (English Language Learners).
The components of a SIOP lesson plan are as follows:
1. Lesson Preparation- Lesson Preparation is basically gathering the necessary parts of the lesson before implementing the lesson. Therefore we need to do the following: Identify and content and language objectives which are reviewed with the learners. Language objectives can be as simple as key vocabulary to grammar and language structures, functions, or skills. Identify Content Concepts that are appropriate for the student’s age, background, and readiness levels. Provide supplementary materials- EX: hands on manipulative, realia (real life objects), pictures, visuals, multimedia, demonstrations, related literature, varying levels of reading materials about the same content, and adapted text. Adapt text so that all levels of ELLs have access to the same information and not a watered down version of the same thing. Ex: graphic organizers, outlines, study guides, highlighted text, taped text, adapted text, jigsaw, marginal notes, and native language texts. Meaningful activities that allow for practice using language in the content areas either through, reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Preferably teachers should use all 4 domains during each class period/lesson.
2. Building Background- teachers must teach concepts linked to student’s background. They must discuss links between previously learned and new concepts. Teachers must ensure that key vocabulary is clearly emphasized and repeated throughout the learning of the content.
3. Comprehensible input is the use of teaching techniques that ensure each student, regardless of English Language Proficiency Level, will understand each part of the lesson. This means using speech appropriate for the levels of the students, clear explanations of tasks, and techniques to make the lessons clear.
4. Strategies- Teachers use learning strategies that are best practice for ELLs and allow ELLs to have enough time to use them. Teachers use scaffolding techniques to assist the ELLs in their learning and vary questions so that ELLs can use higher order and critical thinking skills.
5. Interaction- We learned through our SIOP training that the best way for ELLs to learn is through constant oral participation. If they can say something and explain it, they have learned it. Therefore, students need to be given in class time to talk about their learning. This can be done through grouping strategies, wait time for thinking, and time to clarify key concepts.
6. Practice and Application- When a baby learns about their world, first they learn the names of objects they can touch and see. It is important to have hands on materials for the students to learn the concepts in context. They also need time to apply what they have learned through the 4 language domains (reading, writing, listening, and speaking).
7. Lesson Delivery- As the lesson is delivered, the teacher needs to see that the content and language objectives are supported, the students are engaged 90 to 100% of the time, and the pacing of the lesson is appropriate for their proficiency levels.
8. Review and Assessment- Teachers must review key vocabulary and concepts, provide feedback, and make sure that the assessments reflect what has been taught.
Strategies for SIOP
- Outcome Sentences – used when you want to prompt a student to respond in a specific way (I learned, I wondered, etc.)
- Conga Line – a great way to share ideas with different partners (two lines, one moves) – same question or a new one
- On the Line – an opinion activity, great for debates, but can also be a simple way to find a partner to talk to (How do you feel about the war in Iraq?
- Inner-Outer Circle – an interactive activity to share ideas (two circles – one spins to the right to find a new partner)
- Headlines – great reading strategy, after reading something, have students create a headline for it
- PMI – Plus, Minus, Interesting – a reading strategy using a matrix graphic organizer – organize your thoughts into the three categories as you read
- Pair-Share – a great way to activate prior knowledge or share knowledge – share your ideas with a partner
- Paired-Squared – take the two above partners and find two more to share with
- Jigsaw – each group only reads a certain part of the reading, becomes an expert on that section and shares it in some way with the whole group
- Modified Jigsaw – give each group a topic contained within the entire reading and ask them to find everything they can from the reading that talks about that topic
- Affirmations – turning to someone and telling them an affirmative statement (I knew that!)
- Point to the Ceiling (and Pick a Leader) – great way to make sure everyone is listening and consciously knows who to report to
- 3-2-1 – great way to close the lesson – numbers can be anything you want – 3 points to remember, 2 things you liked, 1 question you still have
- Hot Dog Notes – great for kinesthetic learners that need to be doing something while reading – fold a piece of paper in half and slide one side under a page – take notes about the opposite page, then flip the sheet and do the other page – you can write about facts, opinion, or both
- Fish Bowl – everyone gathers around to watch a group perform a strategy, great way to demo a strategy
- Background Knowledge Cards – great for developing concepts – put students into groups of four or five – write a word pertaining to the concept at the top of each piece of paper and give one to each student – they have increasing increments of time to write whatever they already know about each word before passing it to the right – try to figure out what the group of words are talking about (predict what concept you will be learning)
- Word Share-Compare – Write as many definitions (or what you think the word means) as you can in 30 seconds over a vocabulary word written on the top of a piece of paper, pass it to the right and now do the same thing with the new word until everyone gets each word (increase the time increments by 30 seconds each time, so you can read what is already there) – share your findings and explain what made certain people write certain things – also, don’t forget about the green, yellow, and red light chart (green = words I know, yellow = words I need to go slow with because I’m not sure I know them, red = stop b/c I don’t know these words)
- Simultaneous Round Table – have discussions going at each table about the same topic – someone presents an idea while others listen and ask questions – teacher walks around and facilitates
- Pencils Up-Down-Moving – great for yes/no questions – are you sure about this concept? – pencils up = yes, pencils down = no, pencils sideways and moving = not sure
- Number Call – great cooperative activity – several stations where something is to be learned, everyone must become an expert on each poster because no one knows whose number will be called to stay and explain the poster next after groups move to the right
- Vocabulary Relay – an acrostic activity where you fill in each letter of a vocabulary word or concept word with information you already know about that vocabulary or concept word
- Graffiti Write – Everyone writes as much as they can on a poster about a certain topic in a timed amount of time – the group with the most information wins
- Quick Write – a timed activity where students are given a writing topic and allowed to write freely over the topic
- Demo the Concept – essential activity where you actually take the time to teach and sell the activity to students – should be used with every new strategy/activity
- Stand Up / Sit Down – great for multiple choice questions (no way to cheat by looking at your partner – you own your answer) – everyone stands and then you sit when the teacher reaches the answer you agree with (and then you justify your answer)
- Take a Stand T/F – If you think it’s true, sit down, if you think it’s false, stand up
- Thumbs Up (Find a Partner) – put your thumbs in the air if you can hear me – now find a partner by touching thumbs
- Carousel Activity – a way to organize ideas and time – everyone moves when the music stops – can be used with stations, posters, etc.
- Gallery Walk – you have stations with information, students get to write their comments and questions on post-its or directly on the poster
- Think-Write-Share – like pair-share, but you get a minute to organize your thoughts, practice writing them down, and then you share
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